Literacy Training

Morphology

Morphology

What: Morphology is the study of morphemes—the smallest units of meaning in our language. The morphology instruction described in the CALI Reads E-learning module addresses five critical components:

  1. Provide explicit instruction of roots
  2. Promote generative morphology
  3. Teach morphological problem solving
  4. Use contextual information
  5. Consider the words etymology

Why: The English language contains up to 1,000,000 individual words. The vast majority of academic vocabulary words contain Latin or Greek roots and affixes (prefixes and suffixes), with one root generating as many as 5-20 additional meaning related words, commonly referred to as morphological word families. The representation of morphemes within words provides important clues to the word’s meaning. Thus, effective vocabulary instruction should include explicit instruction in English morphology, prefixes, suffixes and roots. The benefits of morphology instruction include morphological awareness, use of spelling-meaning connections to derive word meaning, and word consciousness.

Training Webinar

Reading Coach Lindsay Young and Dr. Sue Sears discuss five critical components of teaching morphology to adolescent students and highlight the CALI Reads E-learning module and demonstration videos.

Particpants Outcomes

Participants will learn to:

  • Explain the benefits of morphology instruction.
  • Provide explicit instruction of roots.
  • Promote generative morphology.
  • Teach morphological problem solving
  • Become familiar with and be able to access module materials and activities.

Preview Morphology demonstration videos

Introduction to Root
Introduction to Keywords
Definitions and Examples
Follow-Up Activities
 

Illustrated Word Stories
Generative Morphology  

Highlighter Races

Instructional Context

Authentic Context
Jeopardy

Morphology Walkthrough Tool

Morpholgy Walkthrough Tool

References

 

Anglin, J. M., (1993). Vocabulary development: A morphological analysis. Monographs of the Society for Research in Child Development, 58, Serial #238.

Apel, K. (Spring 2017). Morphological awareness development and assessment: What do we know? Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 43(2), 11-16.

Baumann, J. F., Edwards, E. C., Boland, E. M., Olejnik, S., & Kame’enui, E. J. (2003). Vocabulary tricks: Effects of instruction in morphology and context on fifth-grade students’ ability to derive and infer word meanings. American Educational Research Journal, 40(2), 447-494.

Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2020). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction. (7th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M.G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction. New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Blachowicz, C. L. Z., Fisher, P., Ogle, D., & Watts-Taffe, S. (2006). Vocabulary: Questions from the classroom. Reading Research Quarterly, 41(4), 524-538.

Bowers, P. N., Kirby, J. R., & Deacon, S. H. (2010). The effects of morphological instruction on literacy skills: A systematic review of the literature. Review of Educational Research, 80, 144-179.

Brown, J. I. (1947). Reading and vocabulary: 14 master words. In M. J. Herzberg (Ed.), Word Study, 1-4. Springfield, MA: G & C Merriam.

Carlisle, J. F. (2010). Effects of instruction in morphological awareness on literacy achievement: An integrative review. Reading Research Quarterly, 45(4), 464-487.

Carlisle, J. F., & Goodwin, A. (2013). Morphemes matter: How morphological knowledge contributes to reading and writing. In C. A. Stone, E. R. Silliman, B. J. Ehren, & G. P. Wallach (Eds.), Handbook of language and literacy: Development and disorders (2nd ed., pp. 265-282). New York, NY: Guilford.

Carlisle, J. F., & Stone, C. A. (2005). Exploring the role of morphemes in word reading. Reading Research Quarterly, 40(4), 428-449.

Ebbers, S. M. (2017) Morphological awareness strategies for the general and special education classroom: A vehicle for vocabulary enhancement. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 43(7), 29-34. International Dyslexia Association.

Ebbers, S. M. (2008). A root awakening: Vocabulary instruction for older students with reading difficulties. Learning Disabilities: Research and Practice 23(2), 90-102.

Gilbert, J. K., Goodwin, A. P., Compton, D. L., & Kearns, D. M. (2013). Multisyllabic word reading as a moderator of morphological awareness and reading comprehension. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47(1), 34-43.

Goodwin, A. P., Lipsky, M., & Ahn, S. (2012). Word detectives: Using units of meaning to support Literacy. The Reading Teacher, 65(7), 461-470.

Graves, M. F., Watts-Taffe, S. (2008). For the love of words: Fostering word consciousness in young readers. The Reading Teacher, 62(3), 185-193.

Goodwin, A. P., & Ahn, S. (2010). A meta-analysis of morphological interventions: Effects on literacy achievement of children with literacy difficulties. Annals of Dyslexia, 60, 183-208.

Goodwin, A. P., Lipsky, M., & Ahn, S. (2012). Word detectives: Using units of meaning to support Literacy. The Reading Teacher, 65(7), 461-470.

Harris, M., Schumaker, J. B., & Deshler, D. (2011). The effects of strategic morphological analysis instruction on the vocabulary performance of secondary students with and without disabilities. Learning Disabilities Quarterly, 34(1), 17-33.

Hennessy, N., & Apel, K. (Spring 2017). Morphological awareness: How the pieces add up. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 43(7), 7-9. International Dyslexia Association.

Henry, M. (2017) Morphemes matter: A framework for instruction. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 43(7), 23-26. International Dyslexia Association.

Henry, M. (2010). Unlocking Literacy: Effective decoding & spelling instruction (2nd ed.) Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Kuo, L. J., & Anderson, R. C. (2006). Morphological awareness and learning to read: A cross-language perspective. Educational Psychology, 41, 161-180.

Kieffer, M., & Lesaux, N. (2007). Breaking down words to build meaning: Morphology, vocabulary and reading comprehension in the urban classroom. The Reading Teacher, 61(2), 134-144.

Kieffer, M., & Lesaux, N. (2008). The role of derivational morphology in the reading comprehension of Spanish-speaking English language learners. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 21(8), 783-804.

Kieffer, M., & Lesaux, N. (2010). Morphing into adolescents: Active word learning for English-language learners and their classmates in middle school. Journal of Adolescent and Adult Literacy, 54(1), 47-56.

Lesaux, N. K., Kieffer, M. J., Faller, S. E., & Kelley, J. G. (2010). The effectiveness and ease of implementation of an academic vocabulary intervention for linguistically diverse students in urban middle schools. Reading Research Quarterly, 45, 196-228.

Lesaux, N. K., Kieffer, M. J., Kelley, J. G., & Harris, J. R. (2014). Effects of academic vocabulary instruction for linguistically diverse adolescents: Evidence from a randomized field trial. American Educational Research Journal, 51(6), 1159-1194.

Moats, L. (2010). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers. (2nd ed.). Baltimore: Paul H. Brookes.

Nagy, W., & Anderson, R. C. (1984). How many words are there in printed school English? Reading Research Quarterly, 19(3), 304-330.

Nagy, W., Berninger, V., & Abbott, R. (2006). Contributions of morphology beyond phonology to literacy outcomes of upper elementary and middle school students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 98,134-147.

Nagy, W., Carlisle, J. F., & Goodwin, A. P. (2013). Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition. Journal of Learning Disabilities, 47, 3-12.

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N., Newton, R., & Newton, E. (2008). Greek and Latin roots: Keys to building vocabulary. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Educational Publishing.

Rasinski, T. V., Padak, N., Newton, R., & Newton, E. (2011). The Latin – Greek connection: Building vocabulary through morphological study. The Reading Teacher 65(2), 133-141.

Scott, J. A., & Nagy, W. E. (2004). Developing word consciousness. In J. F. Baumann & E. J. Kameenui (Eds.), Vocabulary Instruction: Research to practice (pp. 201-217). New York: Guilford.

Singson, M., Mahoney, D., & Mann, V. (2000). The relation between reading ability and morphological skills: Evidence from derivational suffixes. Reading and Writing: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 12, 219-252.

Templeton, S., Bear, D. R., Invernizzi, M., Johnston, F., Flanigan, K., Townsend, D. R., Helman, L., & Hayes, L. (2015). Words their way: Vocabulary for middle and secondary students (2th ed.) Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Townsend, D., Bear, D., Templeton, & Burton, A. (2016). The implications of adolescents’ academic word knowledge for achievement and instruction. Reading Psychology, 37(8), 1119-1148.

Wolter, J. A., & Collins, G. (2017). Morphological awareness intervention for students who struggle with language and literacy. Perspectives on Language and Literacy, 43(7), 17-22. International Dyslexia Association.

Zipke, M. (2008). Teaching metalinguistic awareness and reading comprehension with riddles. The Reading Teacher, 62(2), 128-137.

 

References for Morphology Activities

Bear, D.R., Invernizzi, M., Templeton, S., & Johnston, F. (2020). Words their way: Word study for phonics, vocabulary, and spelling instruction (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.

Beck, I. L., McKeown, M. G., & Kucan, L. (2013). Bringing words to life: Robust vocabulary instruction (2nd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Henry, M. K. (2010). Unlocking literacy: Effective decoding & spelling instruction (2nd ed.). Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing.

Moats, L. C. (2010). Speech to print: Language essentials for teachers (2nd ed.) Baltimore, MD: Paul Brookes Publishing.

Online Etymology Dictionary www.etymonline.com

Rasinski, T., Padak, N., Newton, R. M., & Newton, E. (2008). Greek and Latin roots: Keys to building vocabulary. Huntington Beach, CA: Shell Education.

Templeton, S., Bear, D., Invernizzi, M., Johnston, F., Flanigan, K., Townsend, D. R., Helman, L., & Hayes, L. (2015). Vocabulary for middle and secondary students (2nd ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson.