Science of Effective Reading Instruction


Richard Gifford
Richard Gifford
California Department of Education

CALI Reads is proud to host the following presentation on behalf of the California Department of Education.


Citations and Additional Resources

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  • Liberman, AM. (1992). The relation of speech to reading and writing. In R. Frostand L. Katz (Eds.), Orthography, phonology, morphology, and meaning (pp. 167-178). Amsterdam: Elsevier
  • Wolf, M. (2007). Proust and the squid: The story and science of the reading brain. New York, NY: Harper Collins. (p. 32)

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  • Adams, M. J. (1990). Beginning to read: Thinking and learning about print. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

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  • Francis, D.J., Shaywitz, S.E., Stuebing, K.K., Shaywitz, B.A., & Fletcher, J.M. (1996). Developmental lag versus deficit models of reading disability: A longitudinal, individual growth curves analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 88, 3-17.
  • Kilpatrick, D. A. (2015). Essentials of assessing, preventing and overcoming reading difficulties. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

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  • Gough P., Tunmer W. (1986). Decoding, reading, and reading disability. Remedial and Special Education, 7, 6–10.

Slide 20

  • Scarborough, H. S. (2001). Connecting early language and literacy to later reading (dis)abilities: Evidence, theory, and practice. In S. Neuman & D. Dickinson (Eds.), Handbook for research in early literacy (pp. 97–110). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

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  • Kintsch, W. (1998). Comprehension: A paradigm for cognition. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press
  • Zwaan, R. A., Radvansky, G. A. (1998). Situation models in language comprehension and memory. Psychological Bulletin, 123, 162–185.
  • August, D., & Shanahan, T. (Eds.). (2006). Developing literacy in second-language learners: Report of the National Literacy Panel on Language-Minority Children and Youth. Mahwah, NJ, US: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. p. 436

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  • Wagner, R. K., J. K. Torgesen, C. A. Rashotte, and N. A. Pearson. 2013. Comprehensive Test of Phonological Processing, 2nd ed. (CTOPP-2). Austin, TX: Pro-Ed.

Slide 27

  • Shaywitz, S. E. (2005). Overcoming dyslexia: A new and complete science-based program for reading problems at any level. New York: Vintage Books. (pp. 78-81)
  • Barquero, L. A, N. Davis, and L. E. Cutting. 2014. “Neuroimaging of Reading Intervention: A Systematic Review and Activation Likelihood Estimate Meta-Analysis.” PLoS One 9 (1).

Slide 28

  • Brady, S. (2011). Efficacy of phonics teaching for reading outcomes: Indications from post-NRP research. In S. Brady, D. Braze, & C. Fowler (Eds.), Explaining individual differences in reading: Theory and evidence (pp. 69–96). New York: Psychology Press.
  • Fletcher, J. M., Lyon, G. R., Fuchs, L. S., & Barnes, M. A. (2007). Learning disabilities: From identification to intervention. New York: Guilford
  • Foorman, B., Beyler, N., Borradaile, K., Coyne, M., Denton, C. A., Dimino, J., Wissel, S. (2016). Foundational skills to support reading for understanding in kindergarten through 3rd grade (NCEE 2016-4008). Washington, DC: National Center for Education Evaluation and Regional Assistance, Institute of Education Sciences, U.S. Department of Education
  • National Reading Panel. (2000). Teaching children to read: An evidence-based assessment of the scientific research literature on reading and its implications for reading instruction (NIH Publication No. 00-4769). National Institute of Child Health & Development.
  • What Is Structured Literacy?:

Slide 29.

  • Kilpatrick, D. A. (2015). Essentials of assessing, preventing, and overcoming reading difficulties. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Additional Resources



CALI Reads is a project funded by the Office of Special Education in partnership with the California Department of Education, Special Education Division. The project is coordinated and administered through the

Napa County Office of Education
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Napa County Office of Education
U.S. Offic of Special Education Programs
California Department of Education

The contents of this website were developed under a State Personnel Development Grant (SPDG) from the US Department of Education (CALI/Award #H323A170011), Project Officer, However, the contents of this site not necessarily represent the policy of the US Department of Education and no assumption of endorsement by the Federal government should be made.


Last updated: 02/04/2021